企业破产率下降6.2％ - 破产损失增加了50％以上
企业破产率下降6.2％ - 破产损失增加了50％以上
2016年德国企业破产数字呈下降趋势，从2015年的23,222家，下降到2016年的21,789家，共降低了6.2%。“企业破产率连续7年下降，去年更跌至自1999年的新低。” Bürgel董事总经理Klaus-Jürgen Baum 说到。在2009年的危机中，德国有33,762家企业申请了破产，约占企业总数超过百分之50。
在德国，企业受益于持续稳定的国内经济政策以及财务条件，同时欧元走弱亦帮助了以出口为主的企业。此外，近年的积极趋势，也在发挥作用。许多公司近年以提高资本的方式，搭建起风险缓冲来进行风险规避。Bürgel预计本年度企业破产的数量会稍稍减少。Klaus-Jürgen Baum 说到：“最近我们没有看到任何逆转的趋势，2017年预计破产的公司将减少至21,000家，减少幅度达到3.5%”。然而，由于一些国际政治以及经济的不确定性因素，这个预测将会受到一些未知数所影响，比如英国脱欧、美国政府的换届、以及德国和法国的选举。
2016年，尽管公司破产的数量是减少了，但是它所导致的财务损失的增加是十分显着的。2016年由于破产而导致的损失达到了270亿欧元。相比2015年，数据的涨幅高达54%（2015年为175亿欧元）。多家对经济有重要影响的公司的崩盘导致了这一数值急剧的上扬。其中Steilmann，Sinn-Leffers，German Pellets 的破产便是明显的例子。2016年每间公司平均导致接近120万欧元的损失。高破产损失造成多米诺骨牌效应，例如這可能使以前稳定的供应商或合作伙伴陷入困境，从而导致相关的破产。
- 联邦政府的比较：大多数破产都在不来梅和北莱茵 - 威斯特伐利亚州
从联邦国家的角度来看，公司破产案显示出明显的地区差异。 在绝对数字中，北莱茵 - 威斯特法伦州（6,678家公司破产），巴伐利亚（2,777），下萨克森州（1882）和巴登 - 符腾堡州（1,741）位列统计数字之首。
对破产密度的分析（每万家公司的公司破产数）显示略有不同的结果。 在德国，大部分个案发生在北莱茵 - 威斯特伐利亚州和不来梅州，每万家公司便有100个破产案件。 2016年全国平均每10,000家公司有67家破产。 萨尔兰（98），汉堡（95），柏林（88），石勒苏益格 - 荷尔斯泰因（86）和萨克森 - 安哈尔特（79）显然超过了这一数量。 萨克森（73）和下萨克森（69）略高于平均水平。 2016年破产最少的是巴登 - 符腾堡州，每10,000家公司有39家破产。 但是，图林根（44），巴伐利亚（46），莱茵兰 - 普法尔茨（49）和勃兰登堡（55）的公司也有提出破产。
除了联邦政府之外，Bürgel还分析了德国30个最大城市的破产密度。 根据这一分析，多特蒙德破产的风险最高，每10,000家公司有127家破产。 其次是埃森（115），杜伊斯堡（107）和盖尔森基兴（104）等北莱茵 - 威斯特伐利亚的其他三个城市。 慕尼黑在大城市排名中看起来最好。 在慕尼黑，破产率为每10,000家公司有家48家破产企业。 紧随排名的是德国南部的两个城市纽伦堡（49）和斯图加特（51）。
萨尔州（加上10.3％），布兰登堡（加上7.4％），萨克森州（加上6.7％）和汉堡（加上1.5％）都没有看到全国范围内公司破产减少的趋势。 2016年莱茵兰 - 普法尔茨州的破产数量明显减少（减16.7％）和图林根（减15.3％）。 然而，即使在北威州（减去8.8％），萨克森 - 安哈尔特（减8.1％）和巴伐利亚（减8.0％）的情况下，企业破产数量也比全国平均水平下降了6.2％。
从绝对数字来看，在德国，独资企业（占39.7％; 8,659个案）和有限责任公司（占39.1％; 8,533个案）占破产最大比例。
2. Financial losses due to corporate insolvencies: Insolvency losses have risen sharply
The amount of losses caused by company insolvencies rose significantly in 2016, despite the declining number of cases. The insolvency losses totalled 27 billion euros in 2016. Compared to the year before, this is an increase of almost 54 percent (2015: 17.5 billion euros). Multiple collapses of economically important companies are responsible for this dramatic increase. Prominent examples from last year are the companies Steilmann, Sinn-Leffers, or German Pellets. On average, each company insolvency in 2016 amounted to a loss of approximately 1.2 million euros. The domino effect resulting from the high insolvency losses, for example on suppliers or partners, can also place previously stable companies into difficulty, thus leading to associated insolvencies.
3. Comparison of the federal states: Most of the bankruptcies are in Bremen and North Rhine-Westphalia
A look at the federal states shows that there are pronounced regional differences for company insolvencies. In absolute figures, North Rhine-Westphalia (6,678 company insolvencies), Bavaria (2,777), Lower Saxony (1882), and Baden-Württemberg (1,741) are at the top of the statistics.
The analysis of the insolvency density (company insolvencies per 10,000 companies) shows a slightly different result. Consequently, most cases were in North Rhine-Westphalia and Bremen with 100 insolvencies per 10,000 companies throughout Germany. The national average in 2016 was 67 bankruptcies per 10,000 companies. Saarland (98), Hamburg (95), Berlin (88), Schleswig-Holstein (86), and Saxony-Anhalt (79) clearly exceed this amount. Saxony (73) and Lower Saxony (69) are slightly above the average amount. The fewest bankruptcies in 2016 were in Baden-Württemberg, with 39 bankruptcies per 10,000 companies. However, companies also had to file relatively few insolvencies in Thuringia (44), Bavaria (46), Rheinland-Pfalz (49), and Brandenburg (55).
4. Large city ranking: Dortmund is the insolvency leader
Apart from the federal states, Bürgel has also analysed the insolvency density in the 30 largest German cities. According to this analysis, the risk of insolvency in Dortmund is highest at 127 insolvencies per 10,000 companies. This is followed by Essen (115), Duisburg (107), and Gelsenkirchen (104), three other cities in North Rhine-Westphalia. Munich is looking best in the big city ranking. In Munich the insolvency rate is at 48 bankruptcies per 10,000 companies. Ranking behind it are Nürnberg (49) and Stuttgart (51), two cities in southern Germany.
5. Percentage changes: Corporate insolvencies rose in four federal states
The nationwide trend of declining company insolvencies was not seen in Saarland (plus 10.3 percent), nor in Brandenburg (plus 7.4 percent), Saxony (plus 6.7 percent), and Hamburg (plus 1.5 percent). There were significantly fewer bankruptcies in Rhineland-Palatinate in 2016 (minus 16.7 percent) and Thuringia (minus 15.3 percent). However, even in North Rhine-Westphalia (minus 8.8 percent), Saxony-Anhalt (minus 8.1 percent), and Bavaria (minus 8.0 percent), corporate insolvencies decreased more than the national average (minus 6.2 percent).
6. Company insolvencies in accordance with legal forms: Entrepreneurial companies (limited liability) are still at risk of insolvency
An analysis of the legal forms shows their danger of insolvency varies greatly. Entrepreneurial companies (limited liability) had the highest risk of insolvency in 2016. In this case the insolvency density was 209 bankruptcies per 10,000 companies. However, stock corporations (114) and GmbHs (115) also have an increased risk of bankruptcy.
In absolute figures, the legal forms of commercial enterprises, sole proprietorships (39.7 percent; 8,659 cases), and GmbHs (39.1 percent; 8,533 cases) exhibit the largest proportions of insolvency in Germany.
7. Corporate insolvencies in the main sectors: The insolvency rate in the construction sector is at the highest
The construction sector is at the forefront in the analysis of the main sectors, at 85 insolvencies per 10,000 companies. However, in logistics (83) and trade (70) the insolvency rate is also higher than the average. The services sector has the highest absolute amount of insolvency in Germany at 9,532 cases. The lowest insolvency density is 32 bankruptcies per 10,000 companies in the energy sector.
8. Corporate insolvencies by employee number: Small businesses affected by insolvency again
A look at company size shows that in 2016 it was particularly small businesses that had to file for insolvency. The proportion of companies with at most 5 employees was 81.1 percent. The larger the workforce, the lower the proportion of insolvent companies. Furthermore, 7.7 percent of companies declaring insolvency had 6-10 employees. For companies with 51 or more employees, the proportion of overall insolvency dropped to 2.4 percent.
9. Corporate Insolvencies by company age: 58.9 percent of insolvent companies are not older than 10 years
14.9 percent of insolvent companies in Germany have been active on the market for only up to two years. The current study also shows that more than half (58.9 percent) of insolvent companies are not older than ten years old. The reasons for the failure of young companies are primarily seen in the business idea. If it is not marketable or if the products are not produced efficiently, the company will have no chance of survival, and will have to file for insolvency. Another reason lies in the frequent difficulty start-ups have in obtaining financing. In addition, the company founders have to deal with market changes, strategic mistakes, and lack of expertise.
10. Point of interest: Men lead companies into insolvency almost twice as often as women
In many subjects there is a comparison between men and women. The question of whether there are correlations between the success of the company and the proportion of women in management positions, how strongly such a connection comes into play, and what it depends on, has for years increasingly been the focus of equality-and economic policy discussions. The subject of company insolvencies has been excluded from this comparison thus far. Therefore, in their study the Bürgel credit bureau examined corporate insolvencies for the second time as to whether more men or women are leading the insolvent companies. The result is clear: men run companies more often into insolvency than women. This is supported by both the absolute and relative figures. For 17,277 of insolvent companies there was only one person in charge (Managing Director, owner, etc.) in the top management position. For 80.3 percent of these companies (13,883) that responsible person was male. For 1,951 of the insolvent companies, there were two decision-makers holding the top management position. For these companies also the proportion of men is higher than that of women. In 68.1 percent of the cases the insolvent companies were led by two men. By contrast, only 2.8 percent of the companies with two women managing were affected by insolvency. The remaining proportion (29.1 percent) pertains to companies with mixed management. Similar figures are present for companies with three people at the decision-making level. For 64.9 percent of insolvent companies all three managers were male. There were three female decision-makers for only 1.9 percent of the companies. 33.3 percent of the companies are characterised by mixed-gender management. The relative comparison is more interesting. To this end, the insolvent companies, including the number of decision-makers, were compared with the total number of companies. Again, the result is clear. In almost twice as many cases, one or more men are at the head of an insolvent company. According to analysis, 79 per 10,000 companies with one or more male decision-makers file for insolvency - in comparison to only 41 per 10,000 companies with one or more women in the boardroom. Also, companies with mixed-gender management appear less exposed to insolvency (50 per 10,000 companies).
11. Causes of corprate insolvencies: Several triggers are jointly responsible for insolvency
There are pronounced differences in the reasons for company insolvencies. In many cases, rather than there being just one cause of insolvency, several triggers are jointly responsible for the insolvency. The current economic situation is only one factor in the ultimate success or failure of companies. Bankruptcies also arise from other reasons, both internal and external to the company. Firstly, the main causes of company bankruptcies continue to involve the absence of new orders, or the cancellation or postponement of already-placed orders. Secondly, domino effects insure that insolvent companies take other companies into insolvency with them. Thirdly, management errors are often responsible for an increased insolvency risk. Other relevant criteria include a lack of business planning, no controlling, or insufficient or absent credit management.